Fort Scratchley, located at Newcastle, on Australia’s east coast, is the country’s only coastal fortification to have fired on an enemy naval vessel.
It occurred more than 75 years ago, when a Japanese submarine shelled the city of Newcastle just after 2am on June 8 1942.
On our tour of the fort and its myriad of tunnels and guns, we heard how the Japanese submarine I-21 rained about 26 shells and eight star shells onto Newcastle.
The submarine targeted key industrial plants such as the State dockyards and BHP steelworks – as well as Fort Scratchley itself.
Luckily, no one was killed in the shelling, but the six inch guns at the fort fired two salvoes at the Japanese submarine before it disappeared.
It was the first time Fort Scratchily had fired in anger since it was established in 1882, in the aftermath the Crimean War, at Flagstaff Hill on the site of Australia’s first coal mine.
But since then, the fort – which is now a fascinating museum – has fired its big guns in salute on many special occasions such as ANZAC Day and the occasional arrival in the port of HMAS Newcastle, the frigate named after the coastal city.
A special ceremonial cannon is fired at exactly 1pm each weekday, except Tuesdays.
Fort Scratchley is a concrete record of the evolution of late 19th and early 20th century coastal defence strategy.
Today, the fort’s Historical Society preserves the military heritage, providing exhibitions and guided tours of the site and its amazing tunnels.
One of the most spectacular vantage points along Australia’s east coast, Fort Scratchley is open each day (except Tuesday) from 10am to 4pm.
Fort Scratchley is at Newcastle, about 104 miles of 167 kilometres north of Sydney.
Main photo of Fort Scratchley by Adam.J.W.C. (Own work) [CC BY-SA 2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons